Culture of Uzbekistan

Культура Узбекистана

The Uzbek ethnos - one of the most ancient and picturesque on a planet, and the most numerous in Central Asia. The earths in upper courses of AmuDarya, SirDarya and in foothills of Tjan-Shan always differed on an ethno cultural component from other regions of Central Asia. Local residents already in IV in BC have passed from nomadic to a settled way of life, therefore at the beginning of a civilization the original cultural and social structure which has a little changed since times of Dariy and Alexander till XIX century here was generated.

Even an epoch of Great Resettlement of the people and Turk-Mongolian intrusion could not break firm bases of a local life. Only with Islam arrival separate aspects of the Uzbek culture have undergone certain changes, however and it has organically joined local culture more likely, than has subordinated her. Take a Tour to Uzbekistan and you will be very pleased with its traditions and friendship of Uzbek nation.

Process of formation of the Uzbek ethnos is clearly visible already in XI in when agricultural oases with tjurk and Iran speaking the population have united in the uniform feudal state of Karahanids. People formation as that has come to the end only in XVI in when the nomad tribes of Uzbeks united in the union have intruded in the central areas of Central Asia, headed with dynasty of Sheybanids. Since this moment polyethnic parauzbek ethnos also has received the modern name.

The Uzbek national clothes   

The Uzbek national clothes remain practically invariable from the beginning of a new era. Men carried and carry shirts of a direct cut, every possible dressing gown, both easy, and quilted on cotton wool ("chapan"). Belts served and serve as the indicator of the social status of the owner - elegant or embroidered, with silver patten metal plates and buckles, handbags and pockets show a prosperity of the carrying. Daily belts, as well as belts of poor men, usually represent a simple long belt or the scarf wrapped up round a belt which quite often has bright enough appearance.

The Uzbek national clothes

The Uzbek men usually carry dressing gowns enough gloomy colors, but here it is possible to see and striped dressing gowns of nearby regions, and richly trimmed dressing gowns with traditional embroideries. Trousers are traditionally sewed wide, the direct cut, hardly narrowed from top to bottom. Women carry dressing gowns, long direct dresses from "khan-atlas", and wide trousers, also a wide cut. And there is a difficult system of demonstration social or a marital status of women. The man's headdress usually makes "Kalpok", "dopi" ("duppi"), "sanama", "chizma", "tahya", "tayha", "chumakli", "large sum" or "kulohi" (a kind tubeteyka), women also carry scarves, felt hats and turbans. Nurseries tubeteykas ("kulohcha", "kalpakcha", "duppi", "kulupush") differ a variety and beauty of fabrics, splendor of brushes and balls, embroideries, spangles and an abundance of amulets. And tubeteykas, created in various areas, differ the form, an ornament and a color score.

The Uzbek national clothes

Recently the clothes of Uzbeks have undergone strong changes under the influence of the European culture, therefore everywhere it is possible to meet the people dressed by last word of a fashion. However the well-known Uzbek embroideries and the embroidered clothes, works on metal and the jewels, traditional headdresses and carpets still use considerably more popularity, than the European innovations.

Uzbek family

In the big Uzbek family consisting usually from several generations of in common living relatives, there is a strict hierarchy. Relations in the house are under construction on the basis of unconditional submission the head of the family and respect of seniors. The woman in a local family occupies double position - on the one hand it is mother and the wife of the head of the family, with another - the subordinate and the husband and its father (or mothers). And discrimination here is not present is a century tradition, is based on experience of a life in uneasy local conditions. As age of consent for the girl 13-14 years earlier were considered, today quite European norms though cases of an early marriage are frequent here predominate. Children also enjoy general love.   

In public and home life of Uzbeks the big role is played by Islam. The religion defined and defines household, family and world outlook aspects of a life, has the strongest influence on political processes and art, on all way of life. The Moslem owes five times a day during certain time to address to the god ("namaz"), within a month Ramazan (Ramadan) to observe a strict post in the afternoon, not to drink, not to smoke and not to accept meal to a sunset. From the incomes the Moslem should deduct voluntary a part of money ("zakyat") in favor of poor or on charitable affairs. He should mark days of Muslim holidays and especially a holiday of sacrifices (Kurban). But in local tradition there are also some differences from Islam canons - obligatory for the believer "Khadj" (the pilgrimage to Mecca), can replace visiting of "sacred places" ("mazars").


The special role is played by the ceremonies connected with a birth and education of children ("beshik-tuji", "hatna-kilish"), wedding ("fatiha-thujas" - engagement), ("sunnat-thuja") wedding, cooking ("sabzi-tugrar") and so on. Often they represent an interlacing of Islamic ceremonialism with more ancient forms connected with magic practice. Attendants of a cult use here special respect and participate practically in all events of the country. Friday is considered a holiday which is marked in a cathedral mosque by the general namaz (pray). And thus it is impossible to name Uzbeks fanatical Moslems - at all many-sided nature of a local life in it always remains a lot of secular, and toleration of local residents is widely known outside of the country.

Узбекская свадьба

One of traditional forms of a social system of Uzbekistan is "mahalla" - the neighbor’s community representing extensive community of close neighbors and relatives, uniting usually mutual aid ("hashar") all settlement, with the mosque, local government, traditions and culture. Value "mahalla" is so great, that it is recognized by the major part of local government of the country.

Узбекское гостеприимство

One of firm traditions of a local life - hospitality. Ability to receive the visitor is appreciated in the Uzbek society much above riches of the table or a family prosperity. The invitation to a dinner or a supper to refuse it is not accepted, very much a prominent aspect for the visitor is punctuality. Going on a visit, it is desirable to grasp with itself small souvenirs or sweets for children. Owners meet dear visitors at gate, greet, interested in affairs and a life, invite to come into the house. Visitors accept usually in an extensive central room, or invite to pass in a court yard - a local climate allows to carry out table actions in a court yard almost eight months in a year. At an input in premises the footwear necessarily acts in film.

The table ("dastarhan") is usually covered in the centre of a premise or, in case of a court yard, under trees or in other shady place. The visitor should follow instructions of the owner, however here usually there is an immemorial opposition - the owner too wishes to please the visitor! And in this case the humor and the polite relation to all participants of it, more likely theatrical, process is very much appreciated. However it is necessary to remember, that places far from an input or a collar are considered as the most honorable. Women usually do not sit down one table with men, but in city conditions this rule frequently does not operate. Behind a table it is not accepted to admire with beauty of women and to pay to them steadfast attention. But to take an interest in affairs of a family and state of health of its members quite pertinently.

Узбекская кухня

Despite strong Islamic traditions, the majority of Uzbeks freely take alcohol, at least with visitors. If you do not drink strong alcoholic drinks, mainly vodka, in advance warn about it, to impose here anybody and will be nothing. During Ramadan it is not recommended to take alcoholic drinks, at least - in opened.

In dialogue Uzbeks are usually enough simple and democratic. To shake hands it is accepted with everything even unfamiliar and militiamen (except women). During hand shake traditionally are interested in health, a state of affairs on work and houses. With women and the persons sitting in a distance, it is accepted to greet applying of the right hand to heart and polite bow. Greetings several times on day even with well familiar people - quite usual rule.

At the entrance of house or chayhana it is necessary to remove footwear. The fashion is democratic enough, however at visiting of cult places, it is not necessary to put on unduly open or short clothes. Despite of everything, it is not recommended to carry shorts, especially in countryside.